German. False participles

Last Updated on October 9, 2023

geschlossene Tür – from schließen, so Gestiefelte Kater – from stiefeln and beanzugter Mann – from anzugen, really?

There is an original form of adjectives in German. They have a connection with nouns, but pretend that they are formed from verbs and have the form of participles. There are not many of these words, but they are among the very common ones.

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The list differs in different sources, since some words still have corresponding verbs, but it is not certain that the word is derived from them, and not from nouns. It is not so important for us whether the verbs were lost along the way of history or whether these words were formed simply by analogy.

Pseudo-participles are formed with the prefixes

  • be-,
  • ge-,
  • ent-, + the suffix -t
  • ver-,
  • zer-

Meanings ​​are often associated with appearance or status. Analogs or translations are often a noun with the preposition: in a flower, in the neighborhood.

I list most of these words. I did not indicate very rare ones. * – for those few that are not so often used.

—official, on duty (be + Amt — post, service)

sie ist beamtet

— widowed (ver + Witwe)

sie (er) war seit zwei Jahren verwitwet

* betagt
— “the one whose day ends”, elderly (be + Tag — day)

hochbetagt (more common word)
— too old

ein betagter Rentner, ein hochbetagter Mann

— “the one whose years have come to an end”, old-aged (be + Jahr — year)

sie war schon bejahrt, als sie starb

* bemittelt
— wealthy, the one who has funds (be + Mitteln — funds)

sie ist das Kind bemittelter Eltern

— courageous, brave, with heart (be + Herz – heart).

eine beherzte Frau rettete das Kind

— ingenious, clever (ge + Witz — wit)

еin gewitzter Junge

— famous, ones who fame has (be + Ruhm — fame)

ein berühmter Schriftsteller

— in the mood, in spirits (ge + Laune — mood)

gut / schlecht gelaunt

— shy, ashamed (ver + Scham — shame)

verschämt lacheln

— dreamy, deep in dream (ver + Traum — dream)

Verträumter Blick

— hated (ver + Hass — hate)

ein verhasstes Regime

— confused, without spirit (ent + Geist — spirit)

jmdn. entgeistert ansehen

— with hangover (ver + Kater — hangover, male cat. Studen’s medical language – from Katarrh and with influence of Katzenjammer)

am nachsten Morgen war er verkatert

* verkopft
— big-headed, intelligent, with a head (ver + Kopf – head)

eine verkopfte Gesellschaft

verblümt and especially popular unverblümt
— first: hidden, in hints, allegorical, veiled (through flowers)
– respectively, the second: no offense, direct, open (“without flowers, as it is”)

verblümt reden
unverblümt die Wahrheit, Meinung sagen

— covered with flowers (be + Blume — flower)

beblümter Stoff, beblümte Wiese

— covered by points (ge + Punkt — point)

ein gepunktetes Kleid

— striped (ge + Streifen — strip)

ein gestreiftes Kleid

— striped like a tiger (ge + Tiger)

eine getigerte Katze

—patterned (ge + Muster — pattern)

bunt gemusterter Stoff

— pearl (ge + Perle)

geperlte Arm- und Beinringe

— spotted (ge + Fleck — spot)

das gefleckte Fell des Leoparden

— diced (ge + Würfel — dice)

gewürfelt Bettbezüge

— in Boots (ge + Stiefel — boot)

der Gestiefelte Kater

– in suit (be + Anzug – suit). It is not in the dictionary yet, but I meet it several times

ein beanzugter Mann

* bestrumpft
— in stockings (be + Strumpf — stockings)

ein bestrumpftes Bein

* bemützt
— in a hat (be + Mütze — hat)

in der Form von bemützten Zwergen

* behelmt
— with helmet (be + Helm — helmet)

die Feuerwehrleute waren behelmt

— в перчатках (be + Handschuh)

ihre kleine, behandschuhte Hand

* befranst
— fringed (be + Franse — fringe)

eine befranste Tasche

* gezähnt
— serrated, toothed (ge + Zahn – tooth)

gezähnte Blatter

— wrinkled (ver + Runzel — wrinkle)

eine verrunzelte Stirn

* bebartet
— bearded, with a beard (be + Bart — beard)

sein Kinn ist schwarz bebartet

* bezopft
— with Braid (be + Zopf — Braid)

* bemähnt
— with mane (be + Mähne — mane)

bemahnte Jugendliche

* zernarbt
— with scars (zer + Narbe — scar)

sein Gesicht ist zernarbt

* vermottet
— moth-eaten (ver + Motten — moth)

— aggressive, warlike, vigorous (ge + Harnisch — armor, weapons, in Harnisch bringen — to piss off)

einen geharnischten Brief schicken

— neighboring, (be + Nachbar — neighbor)

eine benachbarte Stadt, Straße

— legal. adopted by agreement of the parties or by an decision of one party (ge + Willkür — arbitrariness)

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#German grammar

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