German. False participles

Last Updated on May 22, 2022

geschlossene Tür – from schließen, so Gestiefelte Kater – from stiefeln and beanzugter Mann – from anzugen, really?

There is an original form of adjectives in German. They have a connection with nouns, but pretend that they are formed from verbs and have the form of participles. There are not many of these words, but they are among the very common ones.

The list differs in different sources, since some words still have corresponding verbs, but it is not certain that the word is derived from them, and not from nouns. It is not so important for us whether the verbs were lost along the way of history or whether these words were formed simply by analogy.

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Pseudo-participles are formed with the prefixes

  • be-,
  • ge-,
  • ent-, + the suffix -t
  • ver-,
  • zer-

Meanings ​​are often associated with appearance or status. Analogs or translations are often a noun with the preposition: in a flower, in the neighborhood.

I list most of these words. I did not indicate very rare ones. * – for those few that are not so often used.

beamtet
—official, on duty (be + Amt — post, service)

sie ist beamtet

verwitwet
— widowed (ver + Witwe)

sie (er) war seit zwei Jahren verwitwet

* betagt
— “the one whose day ends”, elderly (be + Tag — day)

hochbetagt (more common word)
— too old

ein betagter Rentner, ein hochbetagter Mann

bejahrt
— “the one whose years have come to an end”, old-aged (be + Jahr — year)

sie war schon bejahrt, als sie starb

* bemittelt
— wealthy, the one who has funds (be + Mitteln — funds)

sie ist das Kind bemittelter Eltern

beherzt
— courageous, brave, with heart (be + Herz – heart).

eine beherzte Frau rettete das Kind

gewitzt
— ingenious, clever (ge + Witz — wit)

еin gewitzter Junge

berühmt
— famous, ones who fame has (be + Ruhm — fame)

ein berühmter Schriftsteller

gelaunt
— in the mood, in spirits (ge + Laune — mood)

gut / schlecht gelaunt

verschämt
— shy, ashamed (ver + Scham — shame)

verschämt lacheln

verträumt
— dreamy, deep in dream (ver + Traum — dream)

Verträumter Blick

verhasst
— hated (ver + Hass — hate)

ein verhasstes Regime

entgeistert
— confused, without spirit (ent + Geist — spirit)

jmdn. entgeistert ansehen

verkatert
— with hangover (ver + Kater — hangover, male cat. Studen’s medical language – from Katarrh and with influence of Katzenjammer)

am nachsten Morgen war er verkatert

* verkopft
— big-headed, intelligent, with a head (ver + Kopf – head)

eine verkopfte Gesellschaft

verblümt and especially popular unverblümt
— first: hidden, in hints, allegorical, veiled (through flowers)
– respectively, the second: no offense, direct, open (“without flowers, as it is”)

verblümt reden
unverblümt die Wahrheit, Meinung sagen

beblümt
— covered with flowers (be + Blume — flower)

beblümter Stoff, beblümte Wiese

gepunktet
— covered by points (ge + Punkt — point)

ein gepunktetes Kleid

gestreift
— striped (ge + Streifen — strip)

ein gestreiftes Kleid

getigert
— striped like a tiger (ge + Tiger)

eine getigerte Katze

gemustert
—patterned (ge + Muster — pattern)

bunt gemusterter Stoff

geperlt
— pearl (ge + Perle)

geperlte Arm- und Beinringe

gefleckt
— spotted (ge + Fleck — spot)

das gefleckte Fell des Leoparden

gewürfelt
— diced (ge + Würfel — dice)

gewürfelt Bettbezüge

gestiefelt
— in Boots (ge + Stiefel — boot)

der Gestiefelte Kater

beanzugt
– in suit (be + Anzug – suit). It is not in the dictionary yet, but I meet it several times

ein beanzugter Mann

* bestrumpft
— in stockings (be + Strumpf — stockings)

ein bestrumpftes Bein

* bemützt
— in a hat (be + Mütze — hat)

in der Form von bemützten Zwergen

* behelmt
— with helmet (be + Helm — helmet)

die Feuerwehrleute waren behelmt

behandschuht
— в перчатках (be + Handschuh)

ihre kleine, behandschuhte Hand

* befranst
— fringed (be + Franse — fringe)

eine befranste Tasche

* gezähnt
— serrated, toothed (ge + Zahn – tooth)

gezähnte Blatter

verrunzelt
— wrinkled (ver + Runzel — wrinkle)

eine verrunzelte Stirn

* bebartet
— bearded, with a beard (be + Bart — beard)

sein Kinn ist schwarz bebartet

* bezopft
— with Braid (be + Zopf — Braid)

* bemähnt
— with mane (be + Mähne — mane)

bemahnte Jugendliche

* zernarbt
— with scars (zer + Narbe — scar)

sein Gesicht ist zernarbt

* vermottet
— moth-eaten (ver + Motten — moth)

geharnischt
— aggressive, warlike, vigorous (ge + Harnisch — armor, weapons, in Harnisch bringen — to piss off)

einen geharnischten Brief schicken

benachbart
— neighboring, (be + Nachbar — neighbor)

eine benachbarte Stadt, Straße

gewillkürt
— legal. adopted by agreement of the parties or by an decision of one party (ge + Willkür — arbitrariness)

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