Last Updated on December 8, 2022
The Test Leben in Deutschland only takes the history of the 20th century, starting with the coming to power of the National Socialists, mainly the problems of nazism, the results of World War II, the division and reunification of Germany. I think most of us remember this topic quite well from school education, so the a few tips that you need to know for the test.
But there are a lot of questions to this thema, therefore I divide it in two parts.
Hitler’s rise to power
On January 30, 1933, President Hindenburg (who is believed to have been threatened with an investigation of his son’s financial machinations) appointed Hitler as Reichskanzler. A month later, the arson of the Reichstag was carried out. The communists were accused, but it was planned in reality by the Nazis. This allowed the Communist and Social Democratic Party to dissolve. A number of parties announced self-dissolution.
In July 1933, all parties except the Nazi party were banned. After the death of Hindenburg in 1934, the presidency was removed, Hitler became Führer, Reichskanzler and Supreme Commander.
On June 30, 1934, during the “night of long knives“, people unwanted by the regime, including the leaders of the SA (paramilitary wing of Nazi – Sturmabteilung, SA), were killed.
Massive persecutions of Jews and Roma began. On September 15, 1935, the Nuremberg racial laws were adopted, depriving Jews of civil rights. 9-10 November, 1938, an all-German Jewish pogrom was organized (Kristallnacht). After that, mass arrests and extermination of Jews began.
Nazi Germany in the period 1933-1945 is also called the Third Reich (Third Empire: the first is the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, the second is the German Empire of 1871-1918). It was a totalitarian state with a one-party system and a dominant ideology (National Socialism), all spheres of society were subject to control.
The Third Reich is associated with the rule of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. He was the permanent head of state (official title – “Führer and Reichskanzler”) until his death on April 30, 1945.
Since 1936, the German economy has been increasingly focused on military needs and long-term warfare. Since 1938, Germany began territorial expansion:
- Austria annexed in March 1938
- in September 1938 – March 1939 the Czech Republic and the Klaipeda region were annexed
- in 1939 Danzig and part of the Polish territories
30 September 1938, Munich Agreement (Munich Betrayal) was concluded by Germany, Great Britain, Italy and France.
In 1939, Germany signed a non-aggression pact and a treaty of friendship and borders with the USSR.
In September 1940, Germany signed the Tripartite Pact with Italy and Japan.
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The Second World War
On September 1, 1939, German troops invaded Poland. Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. During 1939-1941, Germany defeated Poland, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Greece, Yugoslavia. In June 1941, Germany invaded the territory of the Soviet Union and occupied part of its territory.
The first years of World War II were very successful for Germany. By 1942 it controlled most of continental Europe (except Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and Sweden), some territories were occupied, some were de facto dependent states (for example, Croatia). The exception was Bulgaria and Finland, which, being allies of Germany, pursued only a partially independent policy.
However, in 1943, there was a turning point in hostilities in favor of the Anti-Hitler coalition.
On July 20, 1944, a group of Wehrmacht generals made an unsuccessful attempt at an anti-Nazi coup with an attempt on Hitler’s life. This conspiracy was later called the “Conspiracy of the Generals.” Many officers were executed, even those who were only indirectly related to the conspiracy. The direct executor of the assassination attempt was Klaus von Stauffenberg.
In 1944, the Germans also began to feel the lack of raw materials. Aviation of the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition bombed cities. Hamburg and Dresden were almost completely destroyed by British and US aviation. Due to heavy losses in the troops, a Volkssturm was created in October 1944, in which local residents were mobilized, including the elderly and young men. Were prepared detachments “Werewolf” for future partisan war and sabotage activities.
In January 1945, hostilities are transferred to the pre-war territory of Germany. On April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide. On May 7, 1945, an act of unconditional capitulation of Germany was signed in Reims, duplicated the next day by the Soviet side in Berlin. May 9 was declared the day of the cessation of hostilities.
Questions from Test Leben in Deutschland
152. Wann waren die Nationalsozialisten mit Adolf Hitler in Deutschland an der Macht?
– 1918 bis 1923
– 1932 bis 1950
– 1933 bis 1945
– 1945 bis 1989
When were the National Socialists, led by Adolf Hitler, in power? (3)
153. Was war am 8. Mai 1945?
– Tod Adolf Hitlers
– Beginn des Berliner Mauerbaus
– Wahl von Konrad Adenauer zum Bundeskanzler
– Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs in Europa
What happened on May 8, 1945? (4)
154. Wann war der Zweite Weltkrieg zu Ende?
When did World War II end? (2)
155. Wann waren die Nationalsozialisten in Deutschland an der Macht?
– 1888 bis 1918
– 1921 bis 1934
– 1933 bis 1945
– 1949 bis 1963
When were the National Socialists in power? (3)
156. In welchem Jahr wurde Hitler Reichskanzler?
In what year did Hitler become Reichskanzler? (3)
157. Die Nationalsozialisten mit Adolf Hitler errichteten 1933 in Deutschland …
– eine Diktatur.
– einen demokratischen Staat.
– eine Monarchie.
– ein Fürstentum. (princedom)
The National Socialists established in Germany in 1933 … (1)
158. Das „Dritte Reich“ war eine …
– Räterepublik. (Soviet Republic)
The Third Reich was … (1)
159. Was gab es in Deutschland nicht während der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus?
– freie Wahlen
– willkürliche Verhaftungen (arbitrary arrests)
– Verfolgung der Juden (persecution of the Jews)
What wasn’t there in Germany during the Nazi era? (1)
160. Welcher Krieg dauerte von 1939 bis 1945?
– der Erste Weltkrieg
– der Zweite Weltkrieg
– der Vietnamkrieg
– der Golfkrieg
What war continued from 1939 to 1945? (2)
161. Was kennzeichnete den NS-Staat? Eine Politik …
– des staatlichen Rassismus
– der Meinungsfreiheit
– der allgemeinen Religionsfreiheit
– der Entwicklung der Demokratie
What characterized the Nazi state? A policy … (1)
162. Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg wurde bekannt durch …
– eine Goldmedaille bei den Olympischen Spielen 1936.
– den Bau des Reichstagsgebäudes. (the construction of the Reichstag building.)
– den Aufbau der Wehrmacht. (the establishment of the Wehrmacht.)
– das Attentat auf Hitler am 20. Juli 1944. (the assassination attempt on Hitler on July 20, 1944.)
Klaus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg is famous for .. (4)
163. In welchem Jahr zerstörten die Nationalsozialisten Synagogen und jüdische Geschäfte in Deutschland?
In what year were synagogues and Jewish shops in Germany destroyed by the National Socialists? (3)
164. Was passierte am 9. November 1938 in Deutschland?
– Mit dem Angriff auf Polen beginnt der Zweite Weltkrieg.
– Die Nationalsozialisten verlieren eine Wahl und lösen den Reichstag auf.
– Jüdische Geschäfte und Synagogen werden durch Nationalsozialisten und ihre Anhänger zerstört.
– Hitler wird Reichspräsident und lässt alle Parteien verbieten.
What happened on November 9, 1938 in Germany? (3)
170. Was gab es während der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus in Deutschland?
– das Verbot von Parteien (banning political parties)
– das Recht zur freien Entfaltung der Persönlichkeit (the right to free development of personality)
– den Schutz der Menschenwürde (the protection of human dignity)
What happened during the days of National Socialism in Germany? (1)
179. Wie endete der Zweite Weltkrieg in Europa offiziell?
– mit dem Tod Adolf Hitlers (with the death of Adolf Hitler)
– durch die bedingungslose Kapitulation Deutschlands (by the unconditional capitulation of Germany)
– mit dem Rückzug der Deutschen aus den besetzten Gebieten (with the withdrawal of the Germans from the occupied territories)
– durch eine Revolution in Deutschland
How did World War II end? (2)